Dome structure is a hemi-spherical hollow structure, used as roofing/ceiling. Earlier Domes were only used in constructing Architectural buildings, but with the passage of time their importance to endure under adverse climatic conditions is understood and now domes can be seen in almost every sphere of construction industry. In other words, a semi-spherical structure with the curvature on top, when usually created to cover a sufficient room for bulk storage like cement, limestone, coal, lignite, gypsum, additives and many more. Depending upon the material used for storage, followings are the storage domes with their usage in industry:
a) Slag Dome:
Slag is metal-separated stony waste material in form of their metal oxides mixed with silicon di-oxides. Industrially, its storage in Slag dome is generally carried for Metal ore smelting process to serve some useful purpose like ‘temperature control in Smelting’, ‘preventing re-oxidation of molten metal’, ‘removing waste from smelting process’.
- Slag dome is useful in sustenance of its compaction characteristics of slag.
- Slag dome is also useful in keeping low risk of breakability and maintenance of maximum strength.
b) Additive Dome:
Additives are organic material added to subject material in purpose to improve its inherit properties, performance, efficiency and reduce cost. Industrially, Additive Dome covers a wide range of additives like antifoams, organic additives and other performance enhancement additives. Some well-known examples of additives are ‘fly ash’, ‘GGBFS’, and ‘silica fume’.
- Additive dome covers large span to facilitate the storage of various additives under same shed.
- Storing Additives under domes facilitates maximum utilization of space in plant which may be used for other industrial purpose too.
- Ventilation facility and prevention from adverse conditions of environment under additive dome will eliminate the problem of oxidation, which causes clinical effects in labor.
c) Gypsum Dome:
Gypsum is fine-grained calcium sulphate (CuSo4) material industrially used as fertilizer/enhancer in subject material to improve its inherit qualities, performance, efficiency and reduce cost.
- Gypsum storage is very useful in controlling fugitive emission of gypsum.
- Storing Gypsum under domes facilitates maximum utilization of space in plant.
- Gypsum dome also helpful in prevention from vulnerability caused by adverse environmental conditions and rainfall.
d) Clinker Dome:
At sintering stage in cement manufacturing process, a nodular material is formed known as Clinker. In the Cement plant, Clinker is prepared by fusing various clays and limestone with additives by melting them below to the point of liquidation. ‘Silica fume cement clinker’, ’pozzolana cement clinker’, ‘ground granulated blast furnace slag cement clinker’ are most commonly formed Clinkers.
- Clinker dome has a benefit of facilitating no spillage and zero dust pollution. This will not only prevent wastage of resources but also create health friendly environment for labor.
- Clinker storage under dome also help in prevention from heat which further facilitates setting up hot clinker to its favorable temperature before being converted into its grinded form, known as cement.
- Clinker storage protects clinker from being affected by Rainfall or heavy thunderstorms, which can harm the quality of clinker.
e) Cement Dome:
The grinded form of clinker is cement. Cement is used as binding material that combines with water and other additives and sets to bind two other materials together. That is why it also called as Hydraulic binder. White cement, pozzolana cement, acid resistant cement, blast furnace cement, sulphate resistant cement, rapid hardening cement, quick-setting cement, high alumina cement, colored cement are some common types of cements in construction industry.
- Cement dome is highly non-vulnerable to maintain moisture and water resistance in heavy rainfall areas.
- Maintenance of temperature and adequate ventilation system is recommended for large scale storage, which can be fulfilled under cement dome.
- Cement storage is useful in providing maximum utilization of space in plant, which fulfills need of efficient loading and unloading of cement in order to feed power stations continuously.
f) Limestone dome:
Limestone is composition of calcium carbonate, CaCo3 with other minerals, generally found in organic sedimentary rocks formed from accumulation of shell, forms, coral etc. In clinker/cement formation, limestone is used as one of the major component. Moreover, In precious Architectural works, limestone is also used neutralize the effect of acidity caused by acid rain.
- Limestone dome costs less as compared to reinforced concrete silo for storage. Therefore limestone dome gives you economical storage solution.
- Limestone storage provide best protection against moisture and rainy weather, as limestone is highly susceptible to moisture.
f) Coal/Lignite dome:
Extracted from the ground by coal mining, coal is the biggest source of energy for the worldwide electricity generation. In simple terms, there exist four types of coal – peat, lignite (brown coal), bituminous, and anthracite(highest quality coal). Coal/Lignite storage is done in large quantities and requires stacking in open areas. ‘Production in mild climatic condition and market it in winter season’, ‘Feed the thermal power stations continuously’ are some of the key reasons for coal storage, which we understand the most.
- Coal/lignite domes are made in such way to prevail cross ventilation at very corner inside it which can be done to prevent heat accumulation.
- Coal dome provide best protection against moisture and rainy weather since coal is vulnerable to moisture.
– Hindustan Alcox Limted, New Delhi